Stangle Cladding Fixation includes design, calculation and production of several types of mechanical fixings and accessories used for cladding purposes.
Stainless and galvanized steel are among the various materials used in the fabrication.
Reference is made to the following standards for the design and structural calculations of Natural Stone Fixing Systems.
- Uniform Building Code 1997-Volume 2 - ASTM A 276 Standard specification for stainless steel bars and shapes. - ASTM 666 Standard specification for annealed or cold-worked austenitic stainless steel sheets. - ASTM C1354 / C1354M - 09 Standard Test Method for Strength of Individual Stone Anchorages in Dimension Stone.
- BS 8298 Design and installation of natural stone cladding. - BS 1449 Part 2 Steel plates, sheets and strips stainless and heat resisting. - BS 6105 Corrosion resistant stainless steel fasteners. - BS 5950 Structural use of steel work in building. - CP3, Chapter 5, Part 2 Wind loads. - BS 970 Part 3 1991, Mechanical properties for stainless steel.
- DIN 1045 Concrete and reinforced concrete, design and dimensioning. - DIN 1053 Masonry, design and dimensioning. - DIN 1055 Design loads for buildings. - DIN 18 516 Cladding for external walls. - DIN 18 800 Steel structures, design and dimensioning. - DIN 18 801 Steel framed structures.
The fixing systems for building cladding are composed of several elements (angles, expansion bolts, screws, nuts, washers, etc), each of which shall present the appropriate mechanical features in respect to the requirements posed by the specific project.
- Permanent load (the dead load), due to the weight of the cladding itself; - Variable load (applied loads), due to the wind, thermal expansions, seismic motions, etc.
- Load-bearing fixing: to support the permanent load and the vertical components of the variable loads. - Restraining fixing: to support the horizontal components of the loads. Restraining fixings instead, serve to maintain the slabs in the positions specified by the project design. Thanks to the systems of adjustment with which they are equipped, the absence of perfect verticality in the external surfaces may be easily overcome.